AJAX is a group of technologies used to send and retrieve messages from web servers.
Google’s mobile operating system.
Application Programming Interface (API)
A program that allows two pieces of
software to communicate with each other.
An array is a collection of values for a variable. For example, an variable called product_ids that is an array can list several product IDs, with each product ID placed in an element of that array.
One advantage of using an array is that you can associate the elements of one array with another. For example, if you have two variables that store data as an array, such as product_ids and product_prices, you can associate the elements of each array, so that the first product ID has the first product price associated with it.
So the price of the first product is $30.99, the price of the second is $12.99, and the price of the third is $10.00.
Asynchronous loading is the loading of a web page’s resources and elements in such a way that the slow loading of one does not prevent the loading of another. When a browser parses through a web page’s source HTML, it can encounter references to resources which it will immediately request and begin loading. While the resource is retrieved, the browser continues to load the rest of the page. See also: Synchronous Loading.
An attribute is a unique characteristic of a visitor or a particular visit to your site that you collect in the AudienceStream platform. Examples of attributes include visit duration, favorite product, active browser, badged visitor, exit URL, date of purchase.
The tracking of visitor touch points across multiple websites to determine which campaigns resulted in conversions.
An audience represents a group of visitors that have the same or similar attributes in the AudienceStream platform. You can group your visitors into different audiences and target them with an email campaign, discount, or some other action.
In Tealium Predict, the output attributes from your models are used to create one or more audiences for which to target your marketing efforts.
Audience Data is defined as data that is associated to a visitor. Common examples include email address and member ID.
AudienceDB (previously called Managed Redshift for Audiences)
One of Tealium’s database solutions that uses structured data to organize audience level data.
One of Tealium’s database solutions that uses semi-structured data to format audience level data.
When someone visits a website, places something in
their online cart, then exits the website without purchasing.
When a company targets a user who has abandoned their
cart, then that user returns to the website to complete the purchase of the
items left in the cart.
CDN (Content Delivery Network)
A content delivery network is a large dispersed network of servers that deliver web page content to visitors with the aim of making the delivery as quickly and efficiently as possible.
CDP (Customer Data Platform)
A marketer-managed system that creates a persistent, unified customer database that is accessible to other marketing systems.
CLI (Command Line Interface)
A tool for operating computer systems with text-based commands instead of windows and buttons. This often allows for more concise or powerful control compared to graphical interfaces, leading to its popularity among engineers and other advanced computer users, and some applications are designed to only be accessed through a CLI.
Client-side tracking has the advantage of taking place
on the user’s device, giving direct access to user-specific data, such as
cookies, URL parameters, user agent, referrer, and IP address. By collecting
on the client, you can easily collect and track all of these pieces of
information to use to trigger other actions.
CMS (Content Management System)
A computer application that supports the creation and modification of digital content, usually in the context of websites. It is often used to support multiple users working in a collaborative environment.
Comma-Separated Values (CSV) File
A plain text file that contains various data records separated by commas.
In Tealum Predict, the confusion matrix, also known as an error matrix, is a performance measurement reported for a trained model in the Model Explorer that compares actual and predicted values. In industry terms, a confusion matrix uses a set of test data for which true values are known and then displays actual and predicted values in table format to allow you to visualize the performance of a given algorithm.
An integration with a third-party vendor’s API that gives you the tools to take action on your Audiences. Actions may include retargeting visitors with discount offers, generating leads and contacts, or delivering Audience data to APIs.
A conversion occurs when a visitor successfully purchases from your site. A visit is “converted” into a sale.
A cookie is a file used by browser to store visitor and session information for a set amount of time.
A cookie value is a piece of data stored in a cookie.
CPM (Cost per thousand)
A term denoting the price of 1,000 advertisement impressions on a given webpage. Rather than being a direct initialism, the “M” stands for the Roman numeral meaning 1,000.
CRM (Customer Relationship Management)
An approach to managing a company’s interaction with current and potential customers that uses data analysis about customers’ history with a company to improve their relationship to the business, specifically focusing on customer retention and ultimately driving sales growth.
CSS (Cascading Style Sheet)
CSS is a language for describing the appearance and stylization of a web page, including font sizes and types, colors, and layout.
CTR (Click-Through Rate)
The number of clicks that your ad receives divided by the number of times your ad is shown: clicks ÷ impressions = CTR. For example, if you had 5 clicks and 1000 impressions, then your CTR would be 0.5%. Each of your ads and keywords have their own CTRs that you can see listed in your account.
Customer Data Hub (CDH)
A single approach to collecting and managing data
and making it available to every customer touchpoint and marketing technology
vendor in real time and fuels exceptional customer experiences and insights.
Using collected data to perform actions for the customer experience.
A collection of data that is separated, broken, or
The process of making sure data is used securely in
association with laws and regulations.
The behind-the-scenes structure that web sites and mobile
apps tap into for timely and consistent visitor data. For more information on data layers in Tealium, see What is a Data Layer?
The redundancy that we see typically comes in one of two forms:
Redundancy associated with using multiple solutions
Redundancy associated with data already available on the page
Tealium, by default, enables data redundancy if there is more than one tag on a webpage. Think of all the digital marketing tags on your order confirmation page and how each uses a different variable name to set the order ID. If there are 7 tags on a page, there are then 7 different variables referencing the order ID. However, with Tealium, you set the order ID variable once in the utag_data object and Tealium handles passing it to the 7 different vendors. This in turn causes shorter page load times which increased page performance.
A Data Scientist is an analytical expert that utilizes skills in technology and social science to look for trends and manage data using industry knowledge, contextual understanding, and skepticism of existing assumptions to reveal solutions to business challenges.
A date attribute stores the date of an event. This could be the date of the first purchase by a visitor, an anniversary, or the date when they last visited your site.
A deployed model refers to a model that has been “trained” and then deployed to populate prediction values into your customer profiles in Tealium AudienceStream.
The Dev publish environment corresponds to your own development environment, so when you publish to Dev in Tealium iQ, that version is pushed out to your development environment.
DOM (Document Object Model)
A convention for identifying and manipulating the elements in an HTML, XML, or XHTML document, such as a web page.
This is a unique identifier value of an element in an HTML document.
Domains, or domain names, identify spaces or sites on the internet that exist under an organization’s control or authority.
DSP (Demand-Side Platform)
A system that allows buyers of digital advertising inventory to manage multiple ad exchange and data exchange accounts through one interface.
Data that a company has collected directly from their audience that may be made up of customers, site visitors, and social media followers.
Flag (Visitor Attribute)
A flag tracks characteristics that can be described in terms of yes or no, such as a Boolean characteristic.
Flicker is the occurrence of default content momentarily displaying to the visitor before it is replaced with the content you intended to show the visitor, making it seem to the visitor as if there was a ‘flicker’ between the two.
Footer is a deprecated extension scope for the Content Modification extension. To use this scope, you must have the utag.js.footer file reference as the last element before the end of the HTML body tag. This prevents anything from overwriting the content delivered by the Content Modification extension.
A framework, or more specifically a software framework, is a platform to develop applications, products, and programs. The framework contains code libraries, programs, and tools to develop software.
Funnel (Visitor Attribute)
A funnel is a collection of steps that a visitor takes to reach an end goal on your site, whether it is a conversion, sign-up, or some other action.
A regulation by which the European government intends to strengthen and unify data protection for all individuals within the European Union (EU). It also addresses the export of personal data outside the EU.
A GET Request is an HTTP method (see HTTP) to fetch data from a server. The request is included in the query string parameter of the URL. A browser, for example, can use the GET Request to retrieve a *.htm file from a server that is hosting a website.
Git is a source code version control system for software development projects.
GitHub is a code repository for software development projects using Git.
HTML is a markup language to organize and display data, especially web pages in web browsers.
The body element contains the viewable content of a web page, such as text, links, images, etc. Non-viewable content, such as some vendor tags, is usually included in the body. It is within the body that you place Tealium’s code.
The footer element, usually located at the bottom of a page, contains additional information about the web page, such as author, copy right information, contact information, etc.
The head element is located at the top of the HTML document and contains page description information, CSS information, and meta tag data.
HTTP (HyperText Transfer Protocol)
HTTP defines various methods to communicate data between clients and servers over the World Wide Web.
An iframe is a web page element that allows you to display another web document within its confines, much like displaying a page within a page. You can use iframe requests instead of pixel requests for pixel tracking.
Apple’s mobile operating system.
IoT (Internet of Things)
The inter-networking of physical devices, vehicles, buildings, and other items embedded with electronics, software, sensors, actuators, and network connectivity which enable these objects to collect and exchange data, sense and be controlled remotely across existing network infrastructure.
Software platforms and technologies designed for marketing departments and organizations to more effectively market on multiple channels online (such as email, social media, or websites) and automate repetitive tasks. With the help of advanced marketing automation tools, marketers are able to automate marketing processes like campaign management, customer data segregation and integration, which results in improved lead quality and higher sales.
Machine learning refers to a subfield of artificial intelligence that focuses on enabling computers to learn without human guidance by recognizing patterns. Machine learning uses a set of predetermined rules to remember the patterns, analyze output, and create a model to explain the patterns and guide the future behavior. In cases where you know what data you want, machine learning accelerates the path to acquiring the desired data. In cases where you do not know exactly what you want or a pattern to identify, machine learning can find a pattern and reveal results that you can use to move forward with acquiring the data you need.
Mapping is the act of sending the data contained in a variable to a variable destination for a particular tag vendor.
Marketing Tech (MarTech)
The use of digital tools for promoting and selling
products and/or services.
A collection of digital tools for acquiring, retaining, and
Tealium’s unique mCDN infrastructure consists of three CDNs: Limelight, Edgecast, and Akamai.
A meta tag is an HTML element that contains information about a web page, such as a page description and keywords.
Metric (Visitor Attribute)
A metric is a visitor attribute that has a numerical value. This could be a counter to keep track of the number of times something happens, or it could be the result of a mathematical equation, such as the sum of metrics.
Metric Set (Visitor Attribute)
A metric set is a collection of metrics or key-value pairs, where the ‘value’ is a number.
MFA (Multi-Factor Authentication)
A method of computer access control in which a user is granted access only after successfully presenting several separate pieces of evidence to an authentication mechanism – typically at least two of the following categories:
Something they know, such as a password.
Something they have, such as a special hardware key fob.
Something they are, such as their unique fingerprint identification.
A mobile app is a software application designed to run on a mobile device.
Mobile Companion is the mobile equivalent of Web Companion.
A mobile site is a web site whose display parameters are optimized for display on a mobile device, such as a phone or tablet.
In Tealum Predict, a model represents the behavior you are predicting within a specific timeframe, such as a purchase, conversion, or any customer behavior tracked in AudienceStream. Models are created using an algorithm and the results are used to explain patterns and predict future outcomes.
The Model Explorer refers to an interactive section of the product interface where you can view performance measurements for each model in each stage and fine-tune the model with actionable items from the interface, such as retrain or deploy.
MVT (Multivariate Testing)
In Internet marketing, a process by which more than one component of a website may be tested in a live environment. It can be thought of in simple terms as numerous A/B tests performed on one page at the same time. A/B tests are usually performed to determine the better of two content variations; multivariate testing uses multiple variables to find the ideal combination.
A pathname is part of the URL for a website, and identifies the locations for resources so the browser can retrieve them. In the example www.mydomain.com/path/to/my/resource.html, /path/to/my/resource.html is the pathname to retrieve resource.html.
PII (Personally Identifiable Information)
Any data that could potentially identify a specific individual. Any information that can be used to distinguish one person from another and can be used for de-anonymizing anonymous data can be considered PII.
A pixel is the code that goes on the website page. The small, usually 1×1,
image file is too small to be seen by people and requires a call back to a server to render.
A pixel request is a request a browser makes to a web server for a 1x1 image pixel. Tracking data is attached to this pixel request so that when the web server receives the pixel request, it also receives the data included with it.
The practice of using 1x1 image pixels to transmit tracking data to web servers.
A POST request is an HTTP method (see HTTP) to send data to a server. The data is included in the body of the POST request. This method is ideal for sending sensitive information like user passwords, via HTML forms.
Pre Loader is an extension scope that runs the extension immediately when the utag.js file loads.
The numeric threshold value selected to measure a Prediction value against the Target Attribute value. For example, if the Prediction Threshold chosen is 0.5 and a Prediction Value is set to 0.51, it is assumed that the Target Attribute Value result is set to true.
The timeframe, in days weeks, or months for the which you want to predict when the action for your target attribute occurs. For example, a user’s “likelihood to return” in the next “x” days, weeks, or months.
The score generated by a Deployed Model. This score represents the likelihood that the Target Attribute Value results are set to true during the visitor’s next visit (assuming the next visit occurs within the Prediction Time Window). This value is stored in the corresponding Output Attribute for the model.
The probability distribution refers to a performance graph reported for a trained model. This graph shows how well the model separates the cases where a visitor did return and perform the action of interest as compared to cases in which the visitor did not return and perform the action. In industry terms, the probability distribution is a mathematical function in which the outcome provides probabilities of the occurrence of different outcomes of an experiment, and thus the probability of a predetermined event to occur.
One of several Publish Environments, Prod correlates to your Production environment.
A set of variables, tags, extensions, and other configurations used to manage the tags for a web site or set of web sites with similar tagging requirements.
Conceptually similar to a code library, a Profile Library is a set of pre-configured tags, variables, extensions, load rules, users, and publish settings other profiles can use.
Property (Visitor Attribute)
A property is a non-numeric visitor attribute. The values of properties are strings, such as collections or sequences of characters.
A Publish Environment is a location on the mCDN where your iQ files are stored and accessed by your website. The standard environments are “Dev”, “QA”, and “Prod”. Read more about Saving and Publishing.
QA is one of Tealium iQ’s publish environments, and is meant to link to your own QA or Staging environments.
Part of a URL for a webpage, the query string passes information. Anything located after a “?” in the URL is part of the query string.
Query String Parameter
A query string parameter is a name/value pair located within the query string. The parameter name and value are separated by an equals sign “=”, while each parameter is separated by an ampersand “&” or semicolon “;”.
The ROC/AUC (under the curve) refers to a performance measurement reported for a trained model. In industry terms, the ROC is known as a true positive rate calculated as the number of true positives divided by the sum of the number of true positives and the number of false negatives. The ROC describes how well a model predicts the positive class when the actual outcome is positive. The true positive rate is also referred to as sensitivity.
The referrer is the URL of the page that had the link the visitor clicked on to reach the page the user is on.
Regular Expression (Regex/Regexp)
A sequence of characters used to find or match patterns within strings.
Responsive design is a type of website design that focuses on creating a page that dynamically responds to visitors depending on the device they use to navigate to the website.
The prediction accuracy for a model degrades over time. When you retrain a Tealium Predict model with new data, the prediction accuracy increases and remains more accurate over a longer period of time.
SaaS, or Software as a Service, is a delivery model in which customers subscribe to the service as access to the software via a web interface rather than installing a local version of the software.
Performing a ‘Save’ in TiQ overwrites the current version. If you use Save instead of Save As, old configurations of the version are unrecoverable.
Performing a ‘Save As’ creates a new version. You can roll back to a previous version’s configuration.
In the Tealium CDP, the scope determines which utag.js file an extension is published in and when an extension runs. Scope options include the following: Pre Loader, DOM Ready, All Tags, Specific Tag, Footer.
A script is a computer program designed to automate and execute tasks.
SDK (Software Development Kit)
An SDK is a set of development tools to help develop software for a particular platform.
SEM (Search Engine Marketing)
A form of Internet marketing that involves the promotion of websites by increasing their visibility in search engine results pages (SERPs) primarily through paid advertising. SEM may incorporate search engine optimization (SEO), which adjusts or rewrites website content and site architecture to achieve a higher ranking in search engine results pages to enhance pay per click (PPC) listings.
Semi Structured Data
Data with some degree of organization. Examples include JSON, CSV files, and tab delimited files.
Sequence (Visitor Attribute)
A sequence is an ordered list of events. Unlike a funnel, an end goal is not necessary for a sequence. You could use this type of attribute to track a visitor’s journey through your site.
In a server-side situation, also called “sessions,”
everything known about an individual is kept back on a server and
can be accessed any time. The only data stored on a user’s machine is
a session ID, which can be connected to the additional data on the
A session, also known as a visit, is the amount of time a visitor spends navigating through your site, beginning with the first page request and ending when the visitor navigates away from your site, or a pre-determined period of time has elapsed. Usually, this period of time is set to 30 minutes.
SKU (Stock Keeping Unit)
A distinct type of item for sale, such as a product or service, and all attributes associated with the item type that distinguish it from other item types. For a product, these attributes could include, but are not limited to, manufacturer, description, material, size, color, packaging, and warranty terms. When a business takes an inventory, it counts the quantity it has of each SKU.
SSP (Supply-Side Platform)
A system that allows buyers of digital advertising inventory to manage multiple ad exchange and data exchange accounts. Many of the larger web publishers of the world use a supply-side platform to automate and optimize the selling of their online media space.
The process of combining your data sets in a way that creates a
clear picture of your marketing strategy.
The model strength score provides ratings that grade the quality (strength) of each version of each model. The strength scores include the F1 Score, Recall, Precision, and Accuracy. For a detailed explanation of these scoring elements, see Model Scores and Ratings.
A string is a sequence of characters or words. variables that only contain one value are often strings.
Data with a high degree of organization.
A subdomain is a domain that exists beneath a larger domain. For example, in community.tealiumiq.com, “community” is a subdomain of tealiumiq.com.
Synchronous loading is the loading of a web page’s resources and elements in such a way that the browser waits for the retrieval of one before it proceeds to the next. See also: Asynchronous Loading.
A plain text file that contains various data records separated by tabs.
A third-party vendor who supplies code to enable you to improve your site’s performance or monitor visitor behavior, enabling you to create a better relationship with your visitors.
See Web Companion.
A tool for implementing, managing, and maintaining tags
in one central place. Tag management helps simplify the entire tag process:
speed up website load times, reduce the need for developers/coding, and
can be changed quickly as needed. One of the main functions of tag
management is to easily map the data collected during the interactions on
your web, mobile, and other digital channels to digital marketing vendors
who need this data to provide a better customer experience.
The target attribute is AudienceStream attribute selected to define your model and represent the user action being predicted. These attributes are visit or visitor-level booleans selected to signal that an action has been performed. For example, a boolean visit attribute named “Has Purchased” signals that a purchase event has occurred during a visit.
Tealium’s web-based TMS for managing your tags.
Third Party Data
Data that is purchased from outside sources that are not the original collectors of the data.
TLC (Tealium Learning Center)
An online community that allows Tealium customers and employees to interact and share solutions and experiences. The learning center includes product guides, developer documentation, forums, education and training, and links to the Support Desk and Production Status pages.
TMS (Tag Management System)
A SaaS system for managing vendor tags.
TMU (Tag Management University)
Tag Management University is Tealium’s tag management training program.
Top Level Domain
The highest level of the domain name system. In the domain www.example.com, com is the top level domain.
In Tealium Predict, the trained version of a model refers to a singular instance of training a model. Every machine learning model has a version and each version is trained with data used to accurately make predictions.
In Tealium Predict, Training refers to the stage in which a model consumes and analyzes data for a predetermined period of time to be used for predictions. The size and quality of the data used during this stage is an important factor in the accuracy of results when you deploy the model.
A process of verifying that a technology solution works for the user. While system testing ensures that software does not crash and meets documented requirements, UAT ensures that the solution will work for the user and that the user accepts the solution. Software vendors sometimes refer to this as “BETA testing”.
UDO (Universal Data Object)
The Universal Data Object, or UDO, is a data object named utag_data that is configured on your site to be a resource for your Tealium implementation. For more information on how to set up your UDO, see the Universal Data Object Guide.
URL (Uniform Resource Locator)
Also known as a web address, a URL is a set of characters that identify a resource, such as web page.
The Tag-specific destination to which a Variable’s data is sent.
Versions are discrete sets of configurations for your Tealium implementation. Performing a Save As creates new versions, while performing a simple save overwrites an existing version.
Characteristics about the current session of a user with your
A visitor attribute is a characteristic of a visitor or their particular visit to your site identified in AudienceStream. Attributes include information that describes that visitor’s habits, preferences, actions, etc. Attributes are divided into different types depending on the type of data they identify.
Visitor ID (Visitor Attribute)
A visitor attribute that identifies visitors.
Combining data about a single user across multiple devices, sessions, events, etc.
Example: Without visitor stitching, if Kyra uses two different devices to visit the
same website (for example, a computer and a phone), they will be tracked as different users
(Computer Kyra & Phone Kyra). With visitor stitching, all of Kyra’s visits to the
website (regardless of device) can be understood as Kyra’s data (Kyra: Computer
The act of a Visitor visiting a website or the triggering of one or more data layer enriched events.
Voice of the Customer (VoC)
A term used in business to describe the in-depth process of capturing customers’ expectations, preferences and aversions. Specifically, the VoC is a market research technique that produces a detailed set of customer wants and needs, organized into a hierarchical structure, and then prioritized in terms of relative importance and satisfaction with current alternatives. When done properly, a VoC program will give
you real-time insight into your customers’ experiences. From this
feedback, you can identify trends and opportunities to improve customer experience across
the customer journey.
A free tool for validating the installation of Tealium on your website. Web Companion allows you to inspect and validate that tags and extensions are loading on your web pages.
The Webhook connector is a service that makes a generic HTTP request— such as a GET, PUT, or POST request—to deliver Audience data to a server. Tealium offers two Webhook Connectors: Webhook and WebhookJ.